OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Uganda
CAPITAL: Kampala
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Multiparty Republic
AREA: 238,461 Sq Km (92,070 Sq Mi)

Direct Link to Political MapDirect Link to Physical MapLOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: Uganda is a landlocked country located in East Central Africa. It is bound by Rwanda, Lake Victoria and Tanzania to the south, Kenya to the east, Sudan to the north and Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) to the west. Most of the country is a vast plateau with the main mountain ranges of Mufumbiro and Ruwenzori located in the west as well as Mt. Elgon to the east. The volcanic Mt. Mufumbiro Highlands are separated from the Ruwenzori Mountains by low valleys which contain Lake George and the Kazinga Channel. The country lies within the upper basin of the White Nile while the principal rivers are the Victoria Nile and the Albert Nile. The country has many rivers and lakes that are interconnected by swamps. Major Cities (pop. est.); Kampala 773,000, Jinja 61,000, Mbale 54,000, Masaka 49,000 (1991). Land Use; forested 28%, pastures 9%, agricultural-cultivated 34%, other 29% (1993).

CLIMATE: Uganda has an equatorial climate with temperatures moderated by altitude. In general, the main dry season is from November to March with July the coolest month of the year. The areas of Lake Victoria as well as the west and southwest mountains receive the highest amount of rainfall with an annual average precipitation exceeding 1,500 mm (60 inches) whereas the areas in the center or northeast receive less than 1,000 mm (39 inches) annually. Average annual temperature ranges in Kampala are from 22 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit) in January to 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit) in July.

PEOPLE: Around 99% of the population are Black Africans with over 40 tribes that are categorized into four groups according to their languages. (1) The Bantu who account for 67% of the population. (2) The East Nilotic who account for 12%. (3) The Western Nilotic who account for 15% and (4) the Central Sudanic who account for less than 5%. Other ethnic alien minorities include Rwandans, Sudanese, Zaireans, Kenyans and Arabs.

DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density; 90 persons per sq km (227 persons per sq mi) (1991). Urban-Rural; 11.3% urban, 88.7% rural (1991). Sex Distribution; 49.0% male, 51.0% female (1991). Life Expectancy at Birth; 49.4 years male, 52.7 years female (1990). Age Breakdown; 48% under 15, 26% 15 to 29, 14% 30 to 44, 7% 45 to 59, 4% 60 to 74, 1% 75 and over (1985). Birth Rate; 50.1 per 1,000 (1990). Death Rate; 15.4 per 1,000 (1990). Increase Rate; 34.7 per 1,000 (1990). Infant Mortality Rate; 103.0 per 1,000 live births (1990).

RELIGIONS: Mostly Christians which account for 70% of the population, of which 50% are Roman Catholic and 28% are Protestant. Around 7% of the population are Muslims and the remainder follow local native tribal beliefs.

LANGUAGES: The official languages are English and Swahili, with Swahili also the national language. There are as many African languages used as there are tribes.

EDUCATION: Aged 25 or over and having attained: no formal schooling or incomplete primary 58.2%, primary 33.9%, lower secondary 5.0%, upper secondary 2.5%, higher 0.4% (1969). Literacy; literate population aged 15 or over 4,822,000 or 69.7% (1985).

MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: On Oct. 9, 1962 Uganda gained full independence from Britain. In 1966 Prime Minister Milton Obote with the assistance of the Army under Maj.Gen. Idi Amin seized control of the government and in 1967 a new constitution was adopted that abolished the country's kingdoms and made the country a republic within the Commonwealth. In 1971 the Ugandan Army overthrew Pres. Obote and set up a military government with Maj.Gen. Idi Amin as President. In 1972 Pres. Amin ordered an estimated 45,000 Asians living in Uganda to leave the country. In 1976 Pres. Amin declared himself President for life. In Oct. 1978 a border dispute led to Ugandan forces invading Tanzania. Tanzania retaliated by invading Uganda and assisting Ugandans who opposed Pres. Amin to overthrow the government. In Apr. 1979 Idi Amin escaped into exile while during his eight years of rule an estimated 300,000 Ugandans were killed. In Dec. 1980 Obote was re-elected President and opposition leader Yoweri Museveni formed the National Resistance Army (NRA) which embarked on a guerrilla campaign against Pres. Obote. During the civil war Pres. Obote alienated the Alcholi Army faction by appointing a Langi as commander-in-chief which resulted in a Acholi-led coup ousting Pres. Obote in July 1985. The National Assembly was dissolved and a Military Council was established with Gen. Tito Okello as head. The Military Council was unable to defeat the NRA and on Jan. 29, 1986 Museveni was inaugurated as President. Pres. Museveni established a National Resistance Council (NRC) and abolished all political parties. Other guerrilla groups such as the Holy Spirit Army led by Alice Lakwena continued to attack the NRA forces. In Dec. 1987 Lakwena was captured in Kenya and in June 1988 the NRC signed a peace agreement with the Uganda People's Democratic Party. In Oct. 1988 a coup plot was discovered and in Nov. 1989 Pres. Museveni replaced the leaders of his guerrilla forces, which were in transition to a regular army. In early 1990 the NRC released around 336 prisoners of war as the NRA launched a new offensive against rebels in the north and east. In May 1990, 26 civilians were shot and killed by the NRA when they were mistaken for rebels. In July 1990 opposition parties and Obote, who had returned from exile, pressed demands for a return to a multiparty political system, although Pres. Museveni believed it was too early for such a move. In Apr. 1991 the NRA launched another major offensive at the rebels in the north of the country who remained active. On April 15, 1991 northern members of the NRC met to discuss a rebel screening program setup in the northern districts which was causing divisions within the NRA. Following the meeting three men, including Omara Atubo the foreign affairs minister, were detained and later charged with treason along with 13 others. In June 1991 the NRC announced that some 60,000 Asians expelled from Uganda by Idi Amin could reclaim their property. Also in 1991 as part of the northern rebel screening process hundreds of civilians were detained in a stadium in Gulu and subject to poor treatment by the NRA. On Mar. 28, 1992 Pres. Museveni announced a restructure of government departments that included the merging of the Finance and Economic Planning ministries. In April 1992 Pres. Museveni called on all Ugandans to plant trees as part of a national campaign to fight the effects of deforestation. On June 30, 1992 the government announced plans to lay off some 5,000 public sector workers. On July 4, 1992 Pres. Museveni launched a USD$93.6 million reconstruction program funded by the World Bank for the northern districts where the the rebels resistance had been the strongest. On Aug. 8, 1992 the government signed an agreement with Rwanda in an attempt to end their border disputes and clashes between the two countries that had lasted for several years. Also in 1992 the NRC reinforced it's opposition to party politics until the completion of the constitutional reforms. On Feb. 16, 1993 the government announced a plan to democratically elect a 180-member constituent assembly to draft a new constitution. On May 24, 1993 Pres. Museveni again reiterated his opposition to a multiparty political system. In July 1993 the government amended the constitution to restore the traditional rulers of the former 4 southern kingdoms, although their role was to be only a cultural one and not political. In Nov. 1993 a date was set for legislative elections to be held in March 1994. Also in 1993 Uganda received financial aid and/or loans to the tune of some USD$1,000,000,000.

CURRENCY: The official currency is the Shilling (USh) divided into 100 Cents.

ECONOMY: Gross National Product; USD $3,425,000,000 (1993). Public Debt; USD $2,495,000,000 (1992). Imports; USD $717,700,000 (1994). Exports; USD $253,900,000 (1994). Tourism Receipts; USD $50,000,000 (1993). Balance of Trade; USD -$463,800,000 (1994). Economically Active Population; 8,365,000 or 49.6% of total population (1991). Unemployed; N/A.

MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are the USA, the UK, the Netherlands, Japan, Spain and Australia.

MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Bananas, Coffee, Copper, Cotton, Fish, Livestock, Maize, Millet, Phosphates, Sorghum, Sugar, Tea, Timber, Yams.

MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture, Cement, Copper Processing, Food Processing, Metal Processing, Motor Vehicles, Mining, Textiles.

MAIN EXPORTS: Coffee, Cotton, Tea.

TRANSPORT: Railroads; route length 1,240 km (771 mi) (1990), passenger-km 109,000,000 (67,729,000 passenger-mi) (1990), cargo ton-km 103,000,000 (70,545,000 short ton-mi) (1990). Roads; length 28,332 km (17,605 mi) (1986). Vehicles; cars 35,492 (1990), trucks and buses 5,646 (1986). Merchant Marine; vessels 3 (1990), deadweight tonnage 8,600 (1988). Air Transport; passenger-km 67,000,000 (41,632,000 passenger-mi) (1990), cargo ton-km 3,000,000 (2,055,000 short ton-mi) (1990).

COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers; total of 4 with a total circulation of 55,000 (1992). Radio; receivers 3,500,000 (1993). Television; receivers 115,000 (1994). Telephones; units 20,800 (1993).

MILITARY: 50,000 (1995) total active duty personnel with 97.6% army, 0.8% navy and 1.6% air force while military expenditure accounts for 1.4% (1993) of the Gross National Product (GNP).

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