OFFICIAL NAME: United Republic of Tanzania
CAPITAL: Dar-es-Salaam (in transition to Dodoma)
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Unitary Multiparty Republic
AREA: 939,361 Sq Km (362,689 Sq Mi)

Direct Link to Political MapDirect Link to Physical MapLOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: Tanzania is located in East Africa and includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba and Zanzibar. It is bound by Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Burundi and Rwanda to the west, Zambia to the southwest, Uganda to the northwest, Kenya to the northeast, Malawi and Mozambique to the south and the Indian Ocean to the east. The Great Rift Valley cuts through the middle of the country running north to south with the major physical regions being the Western Rift, the Central Plateau, Lake Victoria Basin, the Eastern Rift and mountains, the Eastern Plateau as well as the coastal belt and islands. The Central Plateau region comprises the greater part of the country and the mountains, which are mostly grouped along the Eastern Rift, include the Kondoa and Mbulu Ranges, the Gogoland Hills, the Southern Highlands, the Mpwapwa Mountains, the Winter Highlands, Mt. Loolmalasin and Mt. Lengai while the Northern Highlands include two of the highest peaks in Africa, Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Meru. The principal rivers include the Pangani, Wami, Ruvu or Kingani, Rufiji, Kilombero, Mbaragandu and further south the Matandu, Mbemkuru, Lewugu, Lukuledi and Ruvuma. Major Cities (pop. est.); Dar-es-Salaam 1,360,900, Mwanza 223,000, Dodoma 204,000, Tanga 187,600, Zanzibar 157,600 (1988). Land Use; forested 38%, pastures 39%, agricultural-cultivated 4%, other 19% (1993).

CLIMATE: Tanzania has a tropical equatorial climate modified by altitude. The north has two distinct wet seasons with the longest from March to May and the shortest from November to December while the rest of the country has one wet season from November to May. Around 50% of the country receives an annual precipitation of 760 mm (30 inches) with the maximum being 2,540 mm (100 inches) at Lake Nyasa and the minimum, 510 mm (20 inches) on the Central Plateau. The prevailing winds are the NE and SE trade winds. Average temperature ranges in Dar-es-Salaam are from 19 degrees Celsius (66 degrees Fahrenheit) to 31 degrees Celsius (88 degrees Fahrenheit) all year.

PEOPLE: Around 99% of the population are Black Africans divided into over 130 groups which can be broadly categorized into five ethnic families. The Bantu, the Nilotic, the Nilo-Hamitic, the Khoisan and the Iraqw. Around 97% of the population are classified as Bantu who are a blend of Hamitic and Negroid stocks. Ethnic alien minorities include Asians, Arabs and Europeans.

DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density; 28.4 persons per sq km (73.5 persons per sq mi) (1991). Urban-Rural; 32.8% urban, 67.2% rural (1990). Sex Distribution; 49.4% male, 50.6% female (1990). Life Expectancy at Birth; 51.3 years male, 54.7 years female (1990). Age Breakdown; 49% under 15, 25% 15 to 29, 14% 30 to 44, 8% 45 to 59, 3% 60 to 74, 1% 75 and over (1990). Birth Rate; 50.5 per 1,000 (1990). Death Rate; 14.0 per 1,000 (1990). Increase Rate; 36.5 per 1,000 (1990). Infant Mortality Rate; 106.0 per 1,000 live births (1990).

RELIGIONS: Around 34% of the population are Christians while 33% are Muslims with the remainder following local native tribal beliefs.

LANGUAGES: The official languages are Swahili and English, although over 100 local languages are spoken throughout the country.

EDUCATION: Aged 10 or over and having attained: no formal schooling 48.6%, incomplete primary 40.7%, primary 8.7%, secondary and higher 1.9% (1978). Literacy; literate population aged 15 or over 46.3% (1978).

MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: In 1946 Tanganyika became a UN trust territory under British administration and Tanganyika gained full independence on Dec. 9, 1961. In 1963 Great Britain granted Zanzibar internal self-government and full independence on Dec. 10, 1963. On April 23, 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar signed an Act of Union that created the new nation of Tanzania with Dr. Julius Nyerere as President. In 1965 Pres. Nyerere was re-elected and Tanzania became a single-party state. In 1972 Zanibar's first President, Abeid Karume was assassinated. In 1973 Tanzanians voted to move the capital from the coastal city of Dar-es-Salaam to Dodoma near the country's center. In 1978 a border dispute led to Uganda's invasion of Tanzania who in turn responded by invading Uganda. Tanzanian troops aided by Ugandans who opposed Pres. Idi Amin defeated Uganda's Army and withdrew in 1981 after Idi Amin was overthrown. In Oct. 1986 Ali Hassan Mwinyi was elected President and was re-elected in Oct. 1990 for his second and constitutionally last term. In Nov. 1990 Pres. Mwinyi announced that a commission would be set up to study the benefits and disadvantages of establishing a multiparty system of government. In Feb. 1991 the National Executive Committee of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM-Revolutionary Party of Tanzania) appointed Chief Justice Francis Nyalali to head the multiparty investigation commission. On Feb. 23, 1991 Pres. Mwinyi agreed to the modification of the Arusha Declaration, which prevented CCM leaders from using their positions to increase their own wealth, to allow leaders to own rental property, to have private business interests and earn more than one income. On Aug. 21, 1991 around 23,000 prisoners were pardoned by Pres. Mwinyi. Also in 1991 the British government set aside £2 million to fund new political measures and offered a further £20 million in development aid, conditional upon the implementation of World Bank and IMF economic programs. On Feb. 15, 1992 an agreement was signed following a meeting of foreign ministers from Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya in which they agreed to re-instigate regional cooperation. On Feb. 18, 1992 a special congress of the CCM ratified the country's move to a multiparty political system, fearing the separatist movement on Zanzibar. In April 1992 Japan agreed to provide financial assistance for the government's anti malaria program and in the same month the government relax foreign exchange regulations. Also in 1992 Tanzania and Uganda agreed to strengthen energy ties and to continue with plans for Uganda to supply hydroelectric power to the western region of Tanzania. On Jan. 10, 1993 Zanzibar announced it had joined the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), although it reassured the government that their union was not under threat as a result of the move. On Jan. 24, 1993 Pres. Mwinyi created a new post of deputy prime minister and appointed Augustine Lyatonga Mrema. On April 13, 1993 a Ministry of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, headed by Sanuel Sitta, was established. On April 25, 1993 the government announced that it had expelled three Sudanese Muslim teachers for promoting Islamic fundamentalism. Also in April the authorities had arrested some 50 Muslims over disturbances throughout the country and charged them with illegal demonstrations and incitement. In Aug. 1993 a bill was introduced in an attempt to establish a separate government for the mainland to give them a special constitutional status similar to what Zanzibar enjoyed. A closed legislative session was held in which former Pres. Julius Nyerere argued that the ratification of the bill would lead to the collapse of the union. Following the meeting Zanzibar's President Salmin Amour declared his government would withdraw from the OIC.

CURRENCY: The official currency is the Shilling (TSh) divided into 100 Cents.

ECONOMY: Gross National Product; USD $2,521,000,000 (1993). Public Debt; USD $6,746,000,000 (1993). Imports; TSh 446,713,000,000 (1993). Exports; TSh 140,088,000,000 (1993). Tourism Receipts; USD $147,000,000 (1993). Balance of Trade; TSh -385,977,000,000 (1994). Economically Active Population; 13,852,000 or 48.0% of total population (1994). Unemployed; N/A.

MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are the UK, Germany, Japan, Singapore and Italy.

MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Beans, Cassava, Cloves, Coconuts, Coffee, Cotton, Diamonds, Maize, Sisal, Tobacco.

MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture, Cement, Food Processing, Oil Refining, Textiles.

MAIN EXPORTS: Cloves, Coconuts, Coffee, Cotton, Diamonds, Sisal.

TRANSPORT: Railroads; route length 2,580 km (1,603 mi) (1989), passenger-km 3,420,000,000 (2,114,000,000 passenger-mi) (1989), cargo ton-km 1,248,000,000 (855,000,000 short ton-mi) (1989). Roads; length 82,114 km (51,023 mi) (1989). Vehicles; cars 44,000 (1989), trucks and buses 52,000 (1989). Merchant Marine; vessels 39 (1990), deadweight tonnage 31,586 (1990). Air Transport; passenger-km 209,778,000 (130,350,000 passenger-mi) (1990), cargo ton-km 2,134,000 (1,462,000 short ton-mi) (1990).

COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers; total of 3 with a total circulation of 220,000 (1992). Radio; receivers 565,000 (1994). Television; receivers 80,000 (1994). Telephones; units 85,000 (1993).

MILITARY: 34,600 (1995) total active duty personnel with 86.7% army, 2.9% navy and 10.4% air force while military expenditure accounts for 3.8% (1993) of the Gross National Product (GNP).

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