OFFICIAL NAME: Serbia and Montenegro
CAPITAL: Belgrade
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Federal Multiparty Republic
AREA: 102,173 Sq Km (39,449 Sq Mi)

Direct Link to Political MapDirect Link to Physical MapLOCATION AND GEOGRAPHY: Serbia with its semi-autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina, and Montenegro is located on the Balkan Peninsula of East Europe and is bound by the Adriatic Sea and Albania to the southwest, Bosnia-Herzegovina to the west, Croatia to the northwest, Hungary to the north, Romania and Bulgaria to the east and Macedonia to the southeast. The northern region of Greater Serbia lies on the southern extremity of the Central Danubian Plain while the area south of the Sava River and east to west of the Danube River comprises the ranges and massifs of the Serbian Highlands and East Serbian Mountains. To the extreme southwest the extensive basins of the Kosovo Polje and Metonija Rivers are found which is also where the Serbian medieval state had its origins. Montenegro is divided into 3 distinct regions. (1.) The lowlands of the Adriatic, Lake Shkoder as well as the Zeta and lower Moraca Rivers in the southwest. (2.) The denuded mountain region to the west and (3.) the mountain pastures and woodlands of the north and east. Major Cities (pop. est.); Belgrade 1,168,500, Novi Sad 179,600, Nis 175,400, Kragujevac 147,300, Subotica 100,400 (1994). Land Use; forested 26%, pastures 20%, agricultural-cultivated 38%, other 16% (1992).

CLIMATE: Serbia and Montenegro has a moderate and continental climate inland while a Mediterranean-Adriatic climate prevails along the coast. Rainfall increases with distance from the coast, which has an average annual precipitation of 1,000 mm to 1,500 mm (20 to 39 inches) while the mountain slopes receive 1,500 to 3,800 mm (59 to 150 inches) to a maximum of 5,000 mm (197 inches) on the higher peaks further inland. Average temperature ranges inland are from 18 to 19 degrees Celsius (64 to 66 degrees Fahrenheit) in July to 2 to 3 degrees Celsius (36 to 37 degrees Fahrenheit) in January while the coastal area has a range from 23 to 26 degrees Celsius (73 to 79 degrees Fahrenheit) in July.

PEOPLE: The principal ethnic majority are the Serbs who account for 61% of the population while 15% are Albanians, 3.7% are Magyar (Hungarian), 3.6% are Montenegrins and just under 1% are Slav Muslims. Other ethnic minorities include the Croats, Slovaks, Ukrainians, Czechs, Poles, Russians, Romanians and Germans.

DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density; 103 persons per sq km (268 persons per sq mi) (1993). Urban-Rural; 52.0% urban, 48.0% rural (1991). Sex Distribution; 49.6% male, 50.4% female (1991). Life Expectancy at Birth; 68.2 years male, 73.2 years female (1982). Age Breakdown; 23% under 15, 22% 15 to 29, 22% 30 to 44, 17% 45 to 59, 12% 60 to 74, 4% 75 and over (1991). Birth Rate; 14.1 per 1,000 (1991). Death Rate; 9.2 per 1,000 (1991). Increase Rate; 4.9 per 1,000 (1991). Infant Mortality Rate; 20.9 per 1,000 live births (1991).

RELIGIONS: Mostly Christians of the Orthodox Church. Other religious minorities include Muslims, Protestants, Greek or Uniate Catholics and a small number of Jews.

LANGUAGES: The official language is Serbo-Croatian with a cyrillic alphabet. Serbo-Croatian is basically the same language with some minor differences reflecting religious and cultural characteristics between the Serbs and Croats. Other minority languages include Montenegrin and Albanian while German is also widely understood.

EDUCATION: Aged 15 or over and having attained: less than primary education 44.6%, primary 24.4%, secondary 24.7%, post secondary and higher 5.7% (1981). Literacy; literate population aged 10 or over 89.2% (1991).

MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: On Nov. 19, 1945 the Anti Fascist National Liberation Council (AVNOJ), which was a provisional government with Josip Broz also known as Marshal Tito as Prime Minister, abolished the monarchy and established the Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia which consisted of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia with its semiautonomous provinces. In Jan. 1946 a new constitution modeled around the Soviet Union was established and opposition parties abolished. The government then embarked on a nationalization program of industry and collectivized agricultural farms. In 1948 Yugoslavia was expelled from the Cominform or Communist International for refusing to become subordinate to the Soviet parent party and economic embargoes were imposed against Yugoslavia by the Soviet bloc countries. In 1953 Tito inaugurated a new constitution in which he became President and a modified version of socialism was implemented. In 1955 and 1956 Pres. Tito held negotiations with the Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev over sovereignty and the independence of the two nations socialist systems. In 1961 Yugoslavia became a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. In 1963 a constitution was established which made Tito president for life and in 1974 a new constitution was adopted which gave the republics limited veto powers over federal decisions. In the 1970's Croatian nationalism escalated which led to mass demonstrations in Yugoslavia as well as terrorist attacks on overseas Yugoslav targets. On May 4, 1980 Pres. Tito died and was succeeded by a collective leadership system that Tito himself established prior to his death in the hope of averting internal dissension. In May 1981 there were uprisings by the Albanian ethnic population of Kosovo which again resurfaced in 1988 and 1989. In 1987 Slobodan Milosevic was elected President and in 1988 he began moves to restrict the Serbian provinces' autonomy. In 1989 as democratic change began to sweep through Eastern Europe, tensions between the major ethnic groups combined with their individual nationalist aspirations began to escalate. In Sept. 1989 legislation was approved which allowed Slovenia the right to accede from the federation. In Jan. 1990 the communist party surrendered its monopoly on power and announced the development of a multiparty system of government for the federation. During the 1990 free elections the communists only retained power in the republics of Serbia and Montenegro. In early 1991 racial tensions, due to the country's complex ethnic patchwork, began to escalate into violence between the Croat police and Serbs as the country slowly drifted into civil war. In Mar. 1991 the leaders of the six republics began negotiations on the country's future, although they resulted in nothing more than a stalemate. On June 25, 1991 Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence with Slovenia opting for complete secession. On June 26, 1991 the Yugoslav People's Army which is predominantly Serbian launched an offensive into Slovenia that met stiff resistance. Soon after an EC mediated cease-fire was accepted which allowed for the suspension of secession by both republics until Oct. 7, 1991, although it and many further cease-fires were subsequently broken. In Sept. 1991 Macedonia declared its independence which was later followed by Bosnia-Herzegovina. On April 27, 1992 the two remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro reformed a new Yugoslavia. In the same month the new Yugoslavia state relinquished their control over the Yugoslav forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina. On May 30, 1992 the UN Security Council approved a resolution against Yugoslavia that included trade sanctions, a freeze on all overseas assets and the expulsion of Yugoslav diplomats as a result of their alleged aggressions. In June 1992 a Serbian nationalist, Dobrica Cosic, was elected as Yugoslavia's President and on July 14, Milan Panic was appointed Prime Minister. Panic then made several overseas visits with the aim of having the economic and trade sanctions lifted. On Dec. 20, 1992 Milosevic was reelected as the Serbian Republic's President. On Dec. 29, 1992 Prime Minister Panic lost a parliamentary vote of no confidence and was replaced by Radoje Kontic as interim Prime Minister. Also in 1992 there were large demonstrations against Milosevic in March and June. In June 1993 Milosevic managed to force Pres. Cosic to resign following his attempts to exercise his position as commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In Oct. 1993 a series of differences over the Bosnian policy escalated between Milosevic and the leader of the Serbian Radical Party, Vojislav Seselj, who alleged Milosevic and Rodovan Karadzic (the Bosnian Serb leader) were endeavoring to sell out Bosnia for a lifting on the trade sanctions. Following which Seselji unsuccessfully attempted to implement a vote of no confidence against the Serbian government which led to Milosevic dissolving the parliament and announcing new elections. Also in 1993 differences between Montenegro's President Momir Bulatovic and Milosevic surfaced over Bulatovic's independent actions which include visiting Albania and integrating anti-Milosevic opponents from the Liberal Alliance into their local government.

CURRENCY: The official currency is the New Dinar (D) divided into 100 Paras.

ECONOMY: Gross National Product; USD $31,867,000,000 (1990). Public Debt; N/A. Imports; D 104,591,000,000 (1991). Exports; D 89,707,000,000 (1991). Tourism Receipts; N/A. Balance of Trade; D -21,587,000,000 (1990). Economically Active Population; 3,132,000 or 29.8% of total population (1994). Unemployed; 23% (1993).

MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its traditional trading partners were the former USSR, other former East European communist countries and members of the Non-Aligned Movement.

MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Antimony, Bauxite, Coal, Copper, Corn, Cotton, Fish, Grapes, Lead, Lignite, Livestock, Petroleum, Plums, Potatoes, Rye, Sugar Beets, Sunflowers, Timber, Tobacco, Wheat, Zinc.

MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Chemicals, Electrical and Electronic Goods, Fertilizers, Food Processing, Hydroelectric Power, Leather Processing, Machinery, Mining, Motor Vehicles, Petrochemicals, Ship Building, Smelting, Synthetic Fibers, Textiles, Trucks.

MAIN EXPORTS: Chemicals, Clothing, Fabrics, Food, Footwear, Livestock, Machinery, Motor Vehicles, Non Ferrous Metals, Textile Yarns, Timber.

TRANSPORT: Railroads; route length 3,947 km (2,453 mi) (1991). Roads; length 46,019 km (28,595 mi) (1991). Vehicles; cars 1,406,000 (1991), trucks and buses 132,100 (1991). Merchant Marine; vessels 12 (1992). Air Transport; N/A.

COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers; total of 12 with a total circulation of 1,006,000 (1990). Radio; receivers 2,692,000 (1993). Television; receivers 1,642,522 (1989). Telephones; units 2,028,000 (1991).

MILITARY: 126,500 (1995) total active duty personnel with 71.2% army, 5.9% navy and 22.9% air force while military expenditure accounts for 42% (1992) of the Gross National Product (GNP).

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