OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Nauru
CAPITAL: No Official Capital
AREA: 21 Sq Km (8 Sq Mi)

Direct Link to Political MapDirect Link to Physical MapLOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: Nauru is an island located in the west central Pacific Ocean. It is the smallest nation in Asia and is comprised of phosphate rock. It is an oval shaped island bound by a coral reef and encircled by a sandy beach which gently rises to form a fertile coastal belt. Along the coastal belt, coral cliffs rise to form a central plateau which covers more than 50% of the land area. A brackish lagoon known as Buada is situated at the southeastern end of the plateau.

CLIMATE: Nauru has a tropical climate characterized by a dry season from March to October and a wet season from November to February with average humidity between 70 to 80% all year. Average annual precipitation is 1,472 mm (18 inches) with much of it occurring during the wet season when monsoons occur. Average temperature ranges are from 23 to 32 degrees Celsius (73 to 93 degrees Fahrenheit) all year.

PEOPLE: The indigenous Nauruans are of mixed Micronesian, Melanesian and Polynesian descent. The Nauruans are the principal ethnic majority accounting for around 50% of the population while the remainder include 1,800 Tuvaluans and Kiribatians, 1,100 Chinese and 500 Europeans, mainly Australian and New Zealanders.

RELIGIONS: Mostly Christians with around 66% of the population Protestants while the remainder are Roman Catholic.

LANGUAGES: The official language is English which is understood by almost all Nauruans, although most still use their native language called Nauruan.

MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: Japan invaded and occupied Nauru during World War II and in 1945 Australian forces retook the island. In 1947 the UN granted Australia control of the island under a UN trusteeship which was jointly held by Great Britain, Australia and New Zealand. In 1951 Nauru was granted greater autonomy with limited internal self government. In 1964 Nauru began to work towards independence and by 1966 they had a large measure of self government. On Jan. 31, 1968 the UN granted Nauru independence and in late 1968 Nauru was granted Special Member Status in the Commonwealth. In Jan. 1987 Hammer DeRoburt was elected President and was forced to resigned in Aug. 1989. In Dec. 1989 Bernard Dowiyogo was elected President and at the South Pacific Forum in 1990 Pres. Dowiyogo argued strongly that chemical weapons should not be destroyed at the Johnston Atoll in the Pacific. During 1991 Pres. Dowiyogo attempted to bring Australia before the International Court of Justice for the exploitation of Nauru. In response, the Australian government officially commented that the issue of phosphate mining on the island had been settled in UN supervised arrangements when Nauru gained independence. In 1992 Nauru continued with its claim that Australia had breached the terms of its trusteeship over phosphate mining in the International Court of Justice in The Hague. On June 26, 1992 the court ruled that Australian objections were unsound and decided to hear the merits of Nauru's claim for compensation. In July 1992 former President and independence leader, Hammer DeRoburt died in Melbourne, Australia. In 1993 Nauru hosted the South Pacific Forum with Pres. Dowiyogo serving as Chairman. In May 1993 the Australian manager of the Nauru Phosphate Trust, Geoffrey Chatfield resigned in protest to the Nauru government's continual bleeding of the trust. Also in 1993 the Australian government offered an out-of-court settlement to Nauru over their compensation dispute, that allowed for an AUD $57 million payment within 12 months and an additional AUD $2.5 million per annum for 20 years.

CURRENCY: The official currency is the Australian Dollar divided into 100 Cents.

MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are Australia, New Zealand and Japan.

MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Coconuts, Fish, Phosphates.

MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Fishing, Phosphate Mining, Tourism.

MAIN EXPORTS: Phosphates.

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