OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Slovenia
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Multiparty Republic
AREA: 20,251 Sq Km (7,819 Sq Mi)
ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION: 2,008,200
LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHY: Slovenia is a republic of the former
socialist Yugoslavia. It is bound by the Gulf of Trieste
to the southwest, Italy to the west, Austria to the north,
Hungary to the northeast and Croatia to the south and southeast.
In general, the country has an Alpine terrain while in the
northwest and north, several ranges of the Eastern Alps
such as the Pohorije, Karawanken, Savinja Alps and the Julian
Alps rise to Mt. Triglav, the country's highest point. To
the south the northern edge of the Dinaric Alps as well
as the limestone Kras Plateau are found while the lowlands
are located to the east and along the Adriatic coast to
the west. The principal rivers are the Sava and Drava, and
there are also several Bled or mountain glacial lakes and
Kras lakes. Major Cities (pop. est.); Ljubljana 276,100,
Maribor 108,100, Celje 41,300, Kranj 37,300, Velenje 27,700
(1991). Land Use; forested 50%, pastures 28%, agricultural-cultivated
15%, other 7% (1993).
CLIMATE: Slovenia has a moderately continental climate inland
with cold winters and warm summers while along the coast the climate can
be described as subtropical Mediterranean. Average annual precipitation
varies from 800 to 2,000 mm (31.5 to 79 inches), although it can exceed
2,000 mm (79 inches) in the mountains. Average temperature ranges are from
0 to 2 degrees Celsius (31 to 28.4 degrees Fahrenheit) in January to 18
to 19 degrees Celsius (64.4 to 66 degrees Fahrenheit) in July.
PEOPLE: The principal ethnic majority are the Slovenes who account
for 91% of the population. Other ethnic minorities include Italians, Hungarians,
Croats, Czechs, Slovaks and Germans.
DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density; 99 persons per sq km (255
persons per sq mi) (1993). Urban-Rural; 48.9% urban, 51.1% rural (1991).
Sex Distribution; 48.5% male, 51.5% female (1992). Life Expectancy at Birth;
69.4 years male, 77.3 years female (1990). Age Breakdown; 20% under 15,
22% 15 to 29, 24% 30 to 44, 17% 45 to 59, 12% 60 to 74, 5% 75 and over
(1992). Birth Rate; 10.8 per 1,000 (1991). Death Rate; 9.7 per 1,000 (1991).
Increase Rate; 1.1 per 1,000 (1991). Infant Mortality Rate; 8.4 per 1,000
live births (1991).
RELIGIONS: Mostly Christians, of which the majority are Roman
Catholic. Other religious minorities include Protestants and a small number
LANGUAGES: The official language is Slovene. Other minority languages
include Italian, Serbo-Croatian, Czech, Slovak and German.
EDUCATION: Aged 15 or over and having attained: less than primary
education 13.7%, primary 27.9%, secondary 45.6%, higher 12.8% (1991). Literacy;
literate population aged 10 or over 1,584,500 or 99.2% (1981).
MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: Prior to independence Slovenia's
history was closely tied with that of the Federative People's Republic
of Yugoslavia. On Nov. 19, 1945 the Anti-Fascist National Liberation Council
(AVNOJ), which was a provisional government with Josip Broz also known
as Marshal Tito as Prime Minister, abolished the monarchy and established
the Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia which consisted of Slovenia,
Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia with its semiautonomous provinces.
In Jan. 1946 a new constitution modeled around the Soviet Union was established
and opposition parties abolished. The government then embarked on a nationalization
program of industry and collectivized agricultural farms. In 1948 Yugoslavia
was expelled from the Cominform or Communist International for refusing
to become subordinate to the Soviet parent party and economic embargoes
were imposed against Yugoslavia by the Soviet bloc countries. In 1953 Tito
inaugurated a new constitution in which he became President and a modified
version of socialism was implemented. In 1955 and 1956 Pres. Tito held
negotiations with the Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev over sovereignty
and the independence of the two nations socialist systems. In 1961 Yugoslavia
became a founding member of the Non Aligned Movement. In 1963 a constitution
was established which made Tito president for life and in 1974 a new constitution
was adopted which gave the republics limited veto powers over federal decisions.
In the 1970's Croatian nationalism escalated which led to mass demonstrations
in Yugoslavia as well as terrorist attacks on overseas Yugoslav targets.
On May 4, 1980 Pres. Tito died and was succeeded by a collective leadership
system that Tito himself established prior to his death in the hope of
averting internal dissension. In May 1981 there were uprisings by the Albanian
ethnic population of Kosovo which again resurfaced in 1988 and 1989. In
1987 Slobodan Milosevic was elected President and in 1988 he began moves
to restrict the Serbian provinces' autonomy. In 1989 as democratic change
began to sweep through Eastern Europe, tensions between the major ethnic
groups combined with their individual nationalist aspirations began to
escalate. In Sept. 1989 legislation was approved which allowed Slovenia
the right to accede from the federation. In Jan. 1990 the communist party
surrendered its monopoly on power and announced the development of a multiparty
system of government for the federation. During the 1990 free elections
the communists only retained power in the republics of Serbia and Montenegro.
In early 1991 racial tensions, due to the country's complex ethnic patchwork,
began to escalate into violence between the Croat police and Serbs as the
country slowly drifted into civil war. In Mar. 1991 the leaders of the
six republics began negotiations on the country's future, although they
resulted in nothing more than a stalemate. On June 25, 1991 Slovenia and
Croatia declared their independence with Slovenia opting for complete secession.
On June 26, 1991 the Yugoslav People's Army which is predominantly Serbian
launched an offensive into Slovenia that met stiff resistance. Soon after
an EC mediated cease-fire was accepted which allowed for the suspension
of secession by both republics until Oct. 7, 1991, although it and many
further cease-fires were subsequently broken. In Sept. 1991 Macedonia declared
its independence which was later followed by Bosnia-Herzegovina. On Jan.
15, 1992 Slovenia was officially recognized by the EU and was officially
admitted to the UN on May 22, 1992. On April 22, 1992 Lojze Peterle leader
of the Christian Democratic Party and Prime Minister of a coalition government
failed to survive a vote of no confidence. On May 14, 1992 Janez Drnovsek
of the Liberal Democrat Party was elected to succeed Peterle as Prime Minister.
On June 7, 1992 Ivan Kramberger of the Homeland Peasant Party was murdered.
On Dec. 6, 1992 the country's first democratic elections resulted in Milan
Kucan of the Party of Democratic Reform, formerly the Communist Party,
being re-elected as President while legislative elections resulted in eight
parties gaining seats in the National Assembly. The Liberal Democrats won
the greatest number of seats followed by the Christian Democrats and Drnovsek
formed another coalition government. Also in 1992 relations with Croatia
were strained following disputes over fishing and territorial rights while
Slovenia also signed an agreement with the EU on economic and trade cooperation.
On Jan. 25, 1993 the National Assembly approved Prime Minister Drnovsek's
new coalition government. In April 1993 Slovenia signed an agreement with
the EU that gave it virtually unrestricted access to the common market.
In July 1993 in accordance with a UN arms embargo on the former Yugoslavia
some 120 ton of arms were seized at Maribor airport and resulted in the
arrest of seven people. On Sept. 24, 1993 the government announced that
the arms were destined for the Muslim-led government of Bosnia-Herzegovina
and that the former minister of interior affairs also knew of the deal.
In Oct. 1993 allegation surfaced that the President's office knew of the
arms deal which it denied, following which the chief of the intelligence
service resigned over alleged implicity in the scandal. On Nov. 23, 1993
the government announced new legislation tightening regulations on naturalization.
In Dec. 1993 Slovenia announced it would close the joint Croat-Slovene
Krsko nuclear power station over allegations that Croatia had failed to
met its financial obligations.
CURRENCY: The official currency is the Tolar (SIT) formerly
the Yugoslav Dinar (DIN) divided into 100 Stotin.
ECONOMY: Gross National Product; USD $12,576,000,000 (1993).
Public Debt; N/A. Imports; T 737,409,000,000 (1993). Exports; T 688,842,000,000
(1993). Tourism Receipts; USD $734,000,000 (1993). Balance of Trade; USD
-$509,000,000 (1994). Economically Active Population; 794,675 or 39.9%
of total population (1993). Unemployed; 16.2% (1993).
MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its traditional trading partners are Germany,
Italy, France and Austria as well as other former East European communist
MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Apples, Barley, Bauxite, Brown Coal, Hops,
Livestock, Mercury, Oats, Ores, Pears, Potatoes, Rye, Sugar Beets, Timber,
MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture, Chemicals, Electrical Goods, Food
Processing, Glass Works, Handicrafts, Hydroelectricity, Lumber Mills, Mining,
Motor Vehicles, Paper, Printing, Textiles, Metal, Tourism.
MAIN EXPORTS: Chemicals, Fruit, Hydroelectricity, Machinery, Metal
Ores, Metal Works, Processed Foods, Textiles, Timber, Vegetables.
TRANSPORT: Railroads; route length 1,201 km (746 mi) (1991),
passenger-km 814,000,000 (505,796,000 passenger-mi) (1991), cargo ton-km
3,246,000,000 (2,223,000,000 short ton-mi) (1991). Roads; length 14,553
km (9,043 mi) (1991). Vehicles; cars 594,289 (1991), trucks and buses 35,627
(1991). Merchant Marine; vessels 42 (1990). Air Transport; passenger-km
577,000,000 (358,531,000 passenger-mi) (1991), cargo ton-km 1,216,000 (833,000
short ton-mi) (1991).
COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers; total of 6 with a total circulation
of 308,000 (1992). Radio; receivers 687,000 (1989). Television; receivers
528,500 (1989). Telephones; units 516,300 (1993).
MILITARY: 8,400 (1994) total active duty personnel with 100%
army while military expenditure accounts for 1.6% (1993) of the Gross National
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