OFFICIAL NAME: Most Serene Republic of San Marino
CAPITAL: San Marino
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Unitary Multiparty Republic
AREA: 61.2 Sq Km (24 Sq Mi)
ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION: 24,500
LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: San Marino is a landlocked republic
located in South Europe. It is completely bound and surrounded
by Italy while the country's terrain is characterized by
rugged mountains centered on Mt. Titano, with its three
pinnacles, and the valley of the Ausa River. Major Cities
(pop. est.); Serravalle 4,700, Borgo Maggiore 2,400, San
Marino 2,300, Murata 1,500 (1995). Land Use; agricultural-cultivated
74%, pastures 22%, forested and other 4% (1985).
CLIMATE: San Marino has a Mediterranean climate characterized
by cool winters and warm summers. Rainfall is moderate throughout the year
with an average annual precipitation of 762 mm (13 inches). Temperatures
rarely fall below -6 degrees Celsius (21 degrees Fahrenheit) in winter
and often range between 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit) to 30
degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit) in summer.
PEOPLE: The principal ethnic majority are the San Marinese who
are a mixture of Mediterranean, Alpine, Adriatic and Nordic ethnic stocks
and account for 84% of the population. The largest ethnic minority are
the Italians who account for 16% of the population.
DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density; 382 persons per sq km
(971 persons per sq mi) (1991). Urban-Rural; 90.1% urban, 9.9% rural (1991).
Sex Distribution; 49.0% male, 51.0% female (1991). Life Expectancy at Birth;
70.7 years male, 76.2 years female (1985). Age Breakdown; 16% under 15,
25% 15 to 29, 23% 30 to 44, 17% 45 to 59, 13% 60 to 74, 6% 75 and over
(1990). Birth Rate; 10.0 per 1,000 (1990). Death Rate; 7.4 per 1,000 (1990).
Increase Rate; 2.6 per 1,000 (1990). Infant Mortality Rate; 14.1 per 1,000
live births (1990).
RELIGIONS: Mostly Christians with 95% of the population Roman
LANGUAGES: The official language is Italian which is spoken by
the entire population.
EDUCATION: Economically active population having attained: primary
education 28.4%, secondary 36.8%, higher 34.8% (1990). Literacy; literate
population aged 15 or over 18,135 or 98.0% (1986).
MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: From 1947 to 1957 San Marino had
a communist led coalition government and in 1957 was replaced by the Christian
Democrats (PDCS) and the Independent Social Democrats (PSDIS) in another
coalition until 1973. In 1960 adult woman suffrage was introduced. In 1973
women became eligible for election and another PDCS and Communist Party
(PCS) coalition government was formed. In 1978 the government was in turn
replaced by another coalition and in June 1986 the PDCS and PCS formed
a "Grand Coalition" party which was elected to power in May 1988.
In 1991 San Marino applied for UN membership. Also in 1991 the government
signed a financial and monetary agreement with Italy in which the republic
gained greater autonomy in banking and financial operations as well as
an agreement with the EU putting the country on equal footing with other
EU member countries over trade and tariffs. In 1992 San Marino was admitted
to the UN and in March 1992 the PSDIS, having relinquished their alliance
with the Progressive Democratic Party (formerly the PCS), formed a coalition
government with the PDCS. In Sept. 1992 the country joined the International
Monetary Fund (IMF). In 1993 UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali
visited San Marino and elections resulted in the PSDIS and PDCS maintaining
their position as the two leading political parties, and formed another
CURRENCY: The official currency is the Euro divided into 100
ECONOMY: Gross National Product; USD $188,000,000 (1987). Public
Debt; N/A. Imports; N/A. Exports; N/A. Tourism Receipts; USD $56,454,000
(1983). Balance of Trade; N/A. Economically Active Population; 15,519 or
62.7% of total population (1995). Unemployed; 3.7% (1995).
MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partner is Italy.
MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Building Stone, Cattle, Dairy, Olives, Vines,
MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture, Ceramics, Food Processing, Forestry,
Quarrying, Textiles, Tourism.
MAIN EXPORTS: Ceramics, Furniture, Postage Stamps, Stone, Textiles,
TRANSPORT: Railroads; nil. Roads; length 237 km (147 mi) (1987).
Vehicles; cars 19,360 (1990), trucks and buses 1,711 (1990). Merchant Marine;
nil. Air Transport; nil.
COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers; total of 5 with a total circulation
of N/A. (1994). Radio; receivers 12,600 (1994). Television; receivers 8,000
(1990). Telephones; units 15,700 (1988).