OFFICIAL NAME: Most Serene Republic of San Marino
CAPITAL: San Marino
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Unitary Multiparty Republic
AREA: 61.2 Sq Km (24 Sq Mi)
ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION: 24,500


Direct Link to Political MapDirect Link to Physical MapLOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: San Marino is a landlocked republic located in South Europe. It is completely bound and surrounded by Italy while the country's terrain is characterized by rugged mountains centered on Mt. Titano, with its three pinnacles, and the valley of the Ausa River. Major Cities (pop. est.); Serravalle 4,700, Borgo Maggiore 2,400, San Marino 2,300, Murata 1,500 (1995). Land Use; agricultural-cultivated 74%, pastures 22%, forested and other 4% (1985).


CLIMATE: San Marino has a Mediterranean climate characterized by cool winters and warm summers. Rainfall is moderate throughout the year with an average annual precipitation of 762 mm (13 inches). Temperatures rarely fall below -6 degrees Celsius (21 degrees Fahrenheit) in winter and often range between 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit) to 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit) in summer.


PEOPLE: The principal ethnic majority are the San Marinese who are a mixture of Mediterranean, Alpine, Adriatic and Nordic ethnic stocks and account for 84% of the population. The largest ethnic minority are the Italians who account for 16% of the population.


DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density; 382 persons per sq km (971 persons per sq mi) (1991). Urban-Rural; 90.1% urban, 9.9% rural (1991). Sex Distribution; 49.0% male, 51.0% female (1991). Life Expectancy at Birth; 70.7 years male, 76.2 years female (1985). Age Breakdown; 16% under 15, 25% 15 to 29, 23% 30 to 44, 17% 45 to 59, 13% 60 to 74, 6% 75 and over (1990). Birth Rate; 10.0 per 1,000 (1990). Death Rate; 7.4 per 1,000 (1990). Increase Rate; 2.6 per 1,000 (1990). Infant Mortality Rate; 14.1 per 1,000 live births (1990).


RELIGIONS: Mostly Christians with 95% of the population Roman Catholic.


LANGUAGES: The official language is Italian which is spoken by the entire population.


EDUCATION: Economically active population having attained: primary education 28.4%, secondary 36.8%, higher 34.8% (1990). Literacy; literate population aged 15 or over 18,135 or 98.0% (1986).


MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: From 1947 to 1957 San Marino had a communist led coalition government and in 1957 was replaced by the Christian Democrats (PDCS) and the Independent Social Democrats (PSDIS) in another coalition until 1973. In 1960 adult woman suffrage was introduced. In 1973 women became eligible for election and another PDCS and Communist Party (PCS) coalition government was formed. In 1978 the government was in turn replaced by another coalition and in June 1986 the PDCS and PCS formed a "Grand Coalition" party which was elected to power in May 1988. In 1991 San Marino applied for UN membership. Also in 1991 the government signed a financial and monetary agreement with Italy in which the republic gained greater autonomy in banking and financial operations as well as an agreement with the EU putting the country on equal footing with other EU member countries over trade and tariffs. In 1992 San Marino was admitted to the UN and in March 1992 the PSDIS, having relinquished their alliance with the Progressive Democratic Party (formerly the PCS), formed a coalition government with the PDCS. In Sept. 1992 the country joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In 1993 UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali visited San Marino and elections resulted in the PSDIS and PDCS maintaining their position as the two leading political parties, and formed another coalition government.


CURRENCY: The official currency is the Euro divided into 100 cents.


ECONOMY: Gross National Product; USD $188,000,000 (1987). Public Debt; N/A. Imports; N/A. Exports; N/A. Tourism Receipts; USD $56,454,000 (1983). Balance of Trade; N/A. Economically Active Population; 15,519 or 62.7% of total population (1995). Unemployed; 3.7% (1995).


MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partner is Italy.

MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Building Stone, Cattle, Dairy, Olives, Vines, Wheat.

MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture, Ceramics, Food Processing, Forestry, Quarrying, Textiles, Tourism.

MAIN EXPORTS: Ceramics, Furniture, Postage Stamps, Stone, Textiles, Wine.


TRANSPORT: Railroads; nil. Roads; length 237 km (147 mi) (1987). Vehicles; cars 19,360 (1990), trucks and buses 1,711 (1990). Merchant Marine; nil. Air Transport; nil.


COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers; total of 5 with a total circulation of N/A. (1994). Radio; receivers 12,600 (1994). Television; receivers 8,000 (1990). Telephones; units 15,700 (1988).


MILITARY: nil.


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