OFFICIAL NAME: Kingdom of Denmark
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Constitutional Monarchy
AREA: 43,076 Sq Km (16,632 Sq Mi)
ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION 5,212,500
LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: Denmark is located in North Europe
and consists of the greater part of the Jutland Peninsula
as well as a number of islands in the Atlantic Ocean, Baltic
Sea and North Sea such as Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
It is bound by Skagerrak to the north, Kattegat and Baltic
Sea to the east, the North Sea to the west and Germany to
the south. Denmark is a low lying country characterized
by a mixture of glacial moraine deposits of clay, sand,
gravel and limestone which form undulating plains with rolling
hills that are interspersed with lakes. The coastline is
indented with many lagoons and fjords. Major Cities (pop.
est.); Copenhagen 1,342,700, Arhus 204,100, Odense 140,900,
Alborg 115,000 (1992). Land Use; forested 10%, pastures
5%, agricultural-cultivated 60%, other 25% (1993).
CLIMATE: Denmark has a temperate maritime climate that is very
changeable under the marine influences and the effect of the Gulf Air Stream.
Generally, the winters are cold and cloudy, although summers are warm and
sunny. Average annual precipitation is 600 mm (24 inches) and snow falls
between January and March. Although rainfall occurs throughout the year
it is heaviest between August and October and lowest during the spring
and winter months. Average temperature ranges in Copenhagen are from -3
to 2 degrees Celsius (27 to 36 degrees Fahrenheit) in February to 14 to
22 degrees Celsius (57 to 72 degrees Fahrenheit) in July.
PEOPLE: Denmark is the most ethnically homogeneous nation in
the world with a prominent Nordic group of people. The Danes account for
97% of the population and are racially from a mixture of New Stone Age
and various Gothic German and Scandinavian groups that have immigrated
there. The principal ethnic alien groups include the British, Yugoslavs
or South Slavs and Iranians.
DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density; 119 persons per sq km
(309 persons per sq mi) (1991). Urban-Rural; 86.4% urban, 13.6% rural (1990).
Sex Distribution; 49.3% male, 50.7% female (1990). Life Expectancy at Birth;
71.8 years male, 77.7 years female (1988). Age Breakdown; 17% under 15,
23% 15 to 29, 22% 30 to 44, 17% 45 to 59, 14% 60 to 74, 7% 75 and over
(1990). Birth Rate; 12.4 per 1,000 (1990). Death Rate; 11.9 per 1,000 (1990).
Increase Rate; 0.5 per 1,000 (1990). Infant Mortality Rate; 7.5 per 1,000
live births (1990).
RELIGIONS: The official religion is Evangelical Lutheran which
accounts for around 91% of the population while Roman Catholics and Jews
account for less than 1% combined.
LANGUAGES: The official language is Danish which is a branch
of the East Scandinavian group of languages that are derived from primitive
EDUCATION: Aged 25 or over and having attained: primary 2.8%,
lower secondary 25.0%, upper secondary or vocational 46.1%, advanced vocational
6.8%, higher 9.6%, unspecified 9.7% (1988). Literacy; literate population
aged 15 or over virtually 100% (1988).
MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: In 1945 after the defeat of Germany
which had occupied the country from 1940, Denmark continued its political
reforms and economic expansion under King Frederick IX who inherited the
throne. In 1953 a new constitution removed the upper house of parliament,
allowed the royal succession to females and made Greenland a province and
not a colony of Denmark. In 1949 Denmark abandoned its neutrality and became
a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In
1959 the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was formed by Denmark and
6 other countries. Denmark also began a 10 year development program in
Greenland which was to expand and modernize Greenland's fishing and food
processing industries. In 1972 King Frederick IX died and his daughter
Margrethe II acceded him to the throne. In 1973 Denmark entered the EU
and during the 1970's there was a decline in production and investment
and rise in unemployment. In 1982 a Conservative Party led by Poul Schluter
won the chance to lead a Conservative coalition government for the first
time since 1901. During the 1980's Schulter imposed a series of austerity
programs that brought inflation well down. In Dec. 1990 Prime Minister
Schluter was re-elected after snap elections. During 1991 Denmark was one
of the first western nations to establish diplomatic relations with the
newly independent Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania while
an agreement was reached with Sweden on the construction of a bridge and
a rail-road tunnel link between the two countries by the end of the century.
In June 1992 referendum on the EU's Maastricht Treaty for closer European
political union resulted in a 50.7 to 49.3%, although defiant, "no"
vote which sent shock waves through the 11 EU member states. In Oct. 1992
the Conservative-Liberal coalition produced an eight-point solution outlined
in a White Paper to the deadlock with the EU on the Maastricht Treaty while
Prime Minister Schluter insisted that the Treaty could not be ratified
without Denmark. In Dec. 1992 the EU summit in the UK agreed to exempt
Denmark from key treaty points, allowing another referendum to be scheduled
for 1993. Also in 1992 unemployment remained high, although the economy
continued to revive with low inflation and trade surpluses. On Jan. 14,
1993 Prime Minister Schluter resigned after a judicial inquiry accused
him of misleading the parliament over measures taken to prevent Tamil refugees
from Sri Lanka from entering Denmark. As a result, Poul Nyrup Rasmussen
of the Social Democrats formed a four-party coalition government, the first
majority government since 1971. The new government announced May 18, 1993
as the new date for the country's second Maastricht Treaty referendum.
On May 18, 1993 the Treaty with opt-out clauses received a 56.8% yes vote
and resulted in two nights of riots between disgruntled youths and police.
In 1993 the economy continued to perform well in the face of the general
European recession while the government also announced plans to reduce
the very high levels of income tax and introduce "green" taxes
to offset the revenue losses.
CURRENCY: The official currency is the Krone (Dkr) (plural; Kroner)
divided into 100 Ore.
ECONOMY: Gross National Product; USD $137,610,000,000 (1993).
National Debt; Dkr 628,370,000,000 (1993). Imports; Dkr 191,325,000,000
(1993). Exports; Dkr 232,884,000,000 (1993). Tourism Receipts; USD $3,052,000,000
(1993). Balance of Trade; Dkr 120,497,000,000 (1994). Economically Active
Population; 2,910,325 or 56.2% of total population (1993). Unemployed;
MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are Germany,
Sweden, the UK, the USA, Norway, Italy, France, Switzerland, Japan and
MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Cattle, Cereals, Coal, Cryolite, Fish, Fodder,
Iron Ore, Lead, Molybdenum, Oil and Natural Gas, Pigs, Potatoes, Poultry,
MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture, Chemicals, Engineering, Fishing,
Food Processing, Furniture, Glass, Pharmaceuticals, Petroleum Refining,
Porcelain, Ship Building, Textiles.
MAIN EXPORTS: Animal Foodstuffs, Chemicals, Dairy Products, Electronic
Equipment, Fish, Furniture, Leather, Machinery, Meat, Oil and Gas, Sugar.
TRANSPORT: Railroads; route length 2,837 km (1,763 mi) (1988),
passenger-km 4,988,000,000 (3,099,000,000 passenger-mi) (1988), cargo ton-km
1,653,000,000 (1,132,000,000 short ton-mi) (1988). Roads; length 70,774
km (43,977 mi) (1990). Vehicles; cars 1,595,834 (1989), trucks and buses
294,635 (1989). Merchant Marine; vessels 1,260 (1990), deadweight tonnage
7,173,057 (1990). Air Transport; passenger-km 4,258,000,000 (2,646,000,000
passenger-mi) (1990), cargo ton-km 123,155,000 (84,349,000 short ton-mi)
COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers; total of 42 with a total circulation
of 1,668,000 (1993). Radio; receivers 5,200,000 (1994). Television; receivers
2,700,200 (1994). Telephones; units 3,059,800 (1993).
MILITARY: 27,000 (1994) total active duty personnel with 60.4%
army, 17.0% navy and 17.0% air force while military expenditure accounts
for 2.0% (1993) of the Gross National Product (GNP).
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